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Lesson Staging and Criteria for Staging

A lesson plan is the instructor’s road map of what students need to learn and how it will be done effectively during the class time. Depending on the lesson type, staging of a lesson could be planned differently. With language-based lessons (vocabulary, grammar, phonics), lesson staging could follow P-P-P model:

Warm-up is used to kick-start the lesson. The teacher should set ground rules, establish teams, and stimulate the students’ interest with a relevant song, video, or a quick game. Warm up stage should be relevant, brisk and stimulates students’ interest.

Presentation stage is when the teacher introduces the target language to the students. The teacher could use drilling at the whole-class, group, and individual level to check students’ pronunciation and accuracy. Presentation should be clear, step-by-step introduce new knowledge.

Practice stage is when the students use the presented language to practice in a controlled context such as a game or a group or pair activity. The focus is still on accuracy. Practice stage should foster students’ understanding of the content by repetition, recognition, and comprehension activities which are highly structured and. Interaction should be between teacher and students.

Production stage provides opportunities for students to practice the target language in a freer context such as a game or an individual level activity. Production should foster students’ higher order thinking by application and personalization tasks which are less structured and focus more on fluency than accuracy. Interaction should be between students

Wrap-up is when the teacher summarizes lesson content and check students’ grasp of learned content. This stage should be relevant, brisk, and be able to assess students’ understanding.


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